Monthly Archives: August 2010

LINKS: SOLAR FLARES and the Inner Life of Radioactive Elements on EARTH

It’s a mystery that presented itself unexpectedly: The radioactive decay of some elements sitting quietly in laboratories on Earth seemed to be influenced by activities inside the Sun, 93 million miles away.

Is this possible?

Researchers from Stanford and Purdue University believe it is. But their explanation of how it happens opens the door to yet another mystery.

There is even an outside chance that this unexpected effect is brought about by a previously unknown particle emitted by the sun. “That would be truly remarkable,” said Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the Sun.

The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts and when doctors determine the proper dose of radioactivity to treat a cancer patient.

But that assumption was challenged in an unexpected way by a group of researchers from Purdue University who at the time were more interested in random numbers than nuclear decay. (Scientists use long strings of random numbers for a variety of calculations, but they are difficult to produce, since the process used to produce the numbers has an influence on the outcome.)

The sun is a major source of radiation for life on Earth. Click image for larger view. Credit: NASA/ESA/SOHO

Ephraim Fischbach, a physics professor at Purdue, was looking into the rate of radioactive decay of several isotopes as a possible source of random numbers generated without any human input. (A lump of radioactive cesium-137, for example, may decay at a steady rate overall, but individual atoms within the lump will decay in an unpredictable, random pattern. Thus the timing of the random ticks of a Geiger counter placed near the cesium might be used to generate random numbers.)

As the researchers pored through published data on specific isotopes, they found disagreement in the measured decay rates – odd for supposed physical constants.

Checking data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island and the Federal Physical and Technical Institute in Germany, they came across something even more surprising: long-term observation of the decay rate of silicon-32 and radium-226 seemed to show a small seasonal variation. The decay rate was ever so slightly faster in winter than in summer.

Was this fluctuation real, or was it merely a glitch in the equipment used to measure the decay, induced by the change of seasons, with the accompanying changes in temperature and humidity?

“Everyone thought it must be due to experimental mistakes, because we’re all brought up to believe that decay rates are constant,” Sturrock said.

The Sun speaks

Solar flares send streams of radiation toward the Earth.

On Dec 13, 2006, the Sun itself provided a crucial clue, when a solar flare sent a stream of particles and radiation toward Earth. Purdue nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins, while measuring the decay rate of manganese-54, a short-lived isotope used in medical diagnostics, noticed that the rate dropped slightly during the flare, a decrease that started about a day and a half before the flare.

If this apparent relationship between flares and decay rates proves true, it could lead to a method of predicting solar flares prior to their occurrence, which could help prevent damage to satellites and electric grids, as well as save the lives of astronauts in space.

The decay-rate aberrations that Jenkins noticed occurred during the middle of the night in Indiana – meaning that something produced by the sun had traveled all the way through the Earth to reach Jenkins’ detectors. What could the flare send forth that could have such an effect?

Jenkins and Fischbach guessed that the culprits in this bit of decay-rate mischief were probably solar neutrinos, the almost weightless particles famous for flying at almost the speed of light through the physical world – humans, rocks, oceans or planets – with virtually no interaction with anything.

Then, in a series of papers published in Astroparticle Physics, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research and Space Science Reviews, Jenkins, Fischbach and their colleagues showed that the observed variations in decay rates were highly unlikely to have come from environmental influences on the detection systems.

Reason for suspicion

Studying radiation from the Sun will help scientists develop ways of protecting astronauts from its harmful effects. Image Credit: NASA

Their findings strengthened the argument that the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the Sun. The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth’s elliptical orbit, with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the Sun (where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.

So there was good reason to suspect the Sun, but could it be proved?

Enter Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the Sun. While on a visit to the National Solar Observatory in Arizona, Sturrock was handed copies of the scientific journal articles written by the Purdue researchers.

Sturrock knew from long experience that the intensity of the barrage of neutrinos the sun continuously sends racing toward Earth varies on a regular basis as the Sun itself revolves and shows a different face, like a slower version of the revolving light on a police car. His advice to Purdue: Look for evidence that the changes in radioactive decay on Earth vary with the rotation of the Sun. “That’s what I suggested. And that’s what we have done.”

A surprise

The Sun influences Earth in many ways. On one hand it provides the light and heat that sustains life on our planet. On the other hand it bathes the Earth in ultraviolet light, showers it with x-rays, gamma-rays, electrons, and atomic nuclei, and wraps the Earth in the folds of its own magnetic field. Credit: NASA

Going back to take another look at the decay data from the Brookhaven lab, the researchers found a recurring pattern of 33 days. It was a bit of a surprise, given that most solar observations show a pattern of about 28 days – the rotation rate of the surface of the Sun.

The explanation? The core of the Sun – where nuclear reactions produce neutrinos – apparently spins more slowly than the surface we see. “It may seem counter-intuitive, but it looks as if the core rotates more slowly than the rest of the Sun,” Sturrock said.

All of the evidence points toward a conclusion that the Sun is “communicating” with radioactive isotopes on Earth, said Fischbach.

But there’s one rather large question left unanswered. No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive materials to change their rate of decay.

“It doesn’t make sense according to conventional ideas,” Fischbach said. Jenkins whimsically added, “What we’re suggesting is that something that doesn’t really interact with anything is changing something that can’t be changed.”

“It’s an effect that no one yet understands,” agreed Sturrock. “Theorists are starting to say, ‘What’s going on?’ But that’s what the evidence points to. It’s a challenge for the physicists and a challenge for the solar people too.”

If the mystery particle is not a neutrino, “It would have to be something we don’t know about, an unknown particle that is also emitted by the Sun and has this effect, and that would be even more remarkable,” Sturrock said.
Chantal Jolagh, a science-writing intern at the Stanford News Service, contributed to this story.

Advertisements

IS THERE AN EXPLANATION?

On August 24th, 2010, this amazing stream of lights appeared on NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory’s LASCO C2…explanation of what this is are more than welcome… 


The Golden Mean


Plasma Cosmology and a Belt of Light

Sir Edmund Halley and the Pleiades anomaly


…The photon belt is an immense region of space which is radiating intense electromagnetic radiation throughout the visible spectrum and beyond, into high-frequency invisible light; even including some x-ray spectra. It is part of a magnetic flow of light throughout the galaxy. Reference has already been made through the media to huge increases in intensity of ‘dangerous’ radiation entering through the holes in the ozone layer in certain regions of our planet.

Read more: http://wtfdiam.stevenredhead.com/photonbelt.html

The Wave is a term used to describe a Macro-cosmic Quantum Wave Collapse producing both a physical and a “metaphysical” change to the Earth’s cosmic environment theorized to be statistically probable sometime in the early 21st century. This event is variously described by other sources as the planetary shift to 4th density, shift of the ages, harvest etc., and is most often placed around the end of 2012. The subject of The Wave begins with a UFO abduction account, a transcript of an actual hypnotic regression session, that refers to a global cataclysmic change…

Chapter I Riding the Wave

The subject of The Wave has come up many times in the Cassiopaean sessions and many people have written to me asking for more details about this mysterious event that is suggested to be a part of our future experiences. It is such a vast subject with so many references, that I have put off dealing with it until now. But, the time is right, I think, to talk about some of these things.

In one of the earliest contacts with the Cassiopaeans, being in the “test mode,” I tossed a rather general question out one night:

07-23-94

Q: (L) What is causing the earth changes?
A: Electromagnetic wave changes.
Q: (L) Can you be more specific?
A: Gap in surge heliographic field.

Q: How can one tell if one is programmed?
A: Things will be triggered. You are set up to do certain things… movies, books, different things trigger things that are in your subconscious… I see a key, or a wheel… how a wheel fits together… two wheels fit together and it clicks in…

Q: Okay. This wave you speak of, do you sense that it is a wave coming from deep space or is it a wave coming from within our solar system?
A: It’s on its way! We don’t know about it but somebody knows!

Q: Who knows, does the government know?
A: Yes.

Q: Do they plan on telling anybody?
A: They are setting things in motion. This is why more and more information is being released…

http://www.cassiopaea.org/

–“instead of a slow, continuous movement, evolution tends to be characterized by long periods of virtual standstill (“equilibrium”), “punctuated” by episodes of very fast development of new forms.

The “punctuated equilibrium” theory of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould was proposed as a criticism of the traditional Darwinian theory of evolution. Eldredge and Gould observed that evolution tends to happen in fits and starts, sometimes moving very fast, sometimes moving very slowly or not at all. On the other hand, typical variations tend to be small. Therefore, Darwin saw evolution as a slow, continuous process, without sudden jumps. However, if you study the fossils of organisms found in subsequent geological layers, you will see long intervals in which nothing changed (“equilibrium”), “punctuated” by short, revolutionary transitions, in which species became extinct and replaced by wholly new forms. Instead of a slow, continous progression, the evolution of life on Earth seems more like the life of a soldier: long periods of boredom interrupted by rare moments of terror.
http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Punctueq.html

All of this places humanity, and each one of us, squarely in front of a very difficult and topical problem; the creation of a revolutionary advancement in knowledge which will require a transformation of our thinking and being equal to this never-before-seen phenomena now presencing itself in our world. There is no other path to the future than a profound internal experiential perception and knowledge of the events now underway in the natural environment that surrounds us. It is only through this understanding that humanity will achieve balance with the renewing flow of the PlanetoPhysical States and Processes.

End Paper

-THE EARTH AND LIFE

By DR. ALEXEY N. DMITRIEV*
http://www.tmgnow.com/repository/global/planetophysical.html

The Photon Belt

In 1961 science discovered, by means of satellites, a photon belt encircling the Pleiades. This photon belt * circles the Pleiadian system at an absolute right angle to its orbital planes. As our sun (and we with it) orbits the Pleiades once every 25,860 years, it reaches the midpoint of the photon belt approximately every 12,500 years. It requires some 2,000 years to traverse it, meaning that after departing this realm, another 10,500 years pass before our Solar System enters it again.

Before going any further, we should be mindful of the fact that this particular cycle is nestled within a number of greater cycles. What distinguishes this particular cycle from all its previous occurrences is that it culminates, together with all the other cycles of which it is but a part–including the overall cycle of 206 million years, in one single point of convergence. This is also called the Harmonic Convergence.

* Photon Belt: Huge torroid or “belt” of inter-dimensional Light that passes through this part of Milky Way galaxy in 26,000-year cycle. Last encountered at beginning of 1997. Fortunately, Earth was put into special hole in it that was drilled by a coherent bow wave of gamma particles from a nova that was first observed by astronomers in 1987.
In 1962 we entered the sphere of influence of this photon belt. Calculations approximate the year of the actual entry into its mainstream to be 2011. This correlates with the time when the universe reaches its point of maximum expansion. The East familiarizes us with the contraction and expansion rhythm of the universe as the Inbreath and Outbreath of God–each breath covering a time span (in this density) in the vicinity of 11,000 years. It is no coincidence that this time frame corresponds with the Grand Cycles, the orbit of our sun around the central sun Alcione.

The transition into super-consciousness, [also called] the second Coming of Christ, is to occur at the precise moment of suspension of movement between expansion and contraction, going parallel with the entry into the radiation of the photon belt. This energy is also referred to as the Manasic Vibration or Radiation. Astrophysical calculations, based on the sun’s speed traveling through space (29 km/s) — and Earth’s own movement — indicate that we will enter the photon belt at a speed of 208,800 km/h. The actual entry of Earth into the Manasic Vibration will occur in the twinkling of an eye.

The energy of the photon belt is of etheric and spiritual nature, not physical, but it interacts with and affects the physical.
http://www.burlingtonnews.net/photonbelt.html

You Are Becoming A Galatic Human: The Photon Belt

Paul Otto Hesse discovered that at an absolute right angle (90 degrees) to the movement of the stars in the Pleiades, there was a photon belt shaped like a torroid or huge doughnut with a thickness of approximately 2,000 solar years or 759,864 billion miles. Your earth is now completing a 24,000-26,000-year cycle with this photon belt.

When the photon belt is fully manifested, it will not allow any electrical device to function. Such a development will mean that neither batteries nor electrical circuits will operate when Earth is in the photon belt [17 years]. You will require a new form of energy–photon energy–to operate your former and soon- to-be altered electrical devices.
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/universo/esp_cinturon_fotones_6.htm#

THE THEORY OF CELESTIAL INFLUENCE:
Man, The Universe, and the Cosmic Mystery

by: RODNEY COLLIN

PHILOSOPHICALLY, MAN CAN SUPPOSE AN ABSOLUTE. SUCH AN Absolute would include all possible dimensions both of time and space. That is to say:

It would include not only the whole universe which man can perceive or imagine, but all other such universes which may lie beyond the power of his perception.

It would include not only the present moment of all such universes, but also their past and their future, whatever past and future may mean on their scale.

It would include not only everything actualised in all the past, present and future of all universes, but also everything that potentially could be actualised in them.

It would include not only all possibilities for all existing universes, but also all potential universes, even though they do not exist, nor ever have.

Such a conception is philosophical for us. Logically, it must be like that, but our mind is unable to come to grips with the formula or make any sense of it.


Why are They Always Mystified? Wrong Models to Galaxy Formations…

Giant Rings Around Galaxies Perplex Astronomers
By Zoë Macintosh
SPACE.com Staff Writer
posted: 25 August 2010
07:37 am ET

Giant rings of ultraviolet light have been spotted around some ancient galaxies, sending some scientists reeling from the completely unexpected phenomenon.

The odd ultraviolet formations were spotted around several aged galaxies that astronomers had presumed to be astronomically dead – inactive, that is.

“We haven’t seen anything quite like these rings before,” said researcher Michael Rich at the University of California, Los Angeles, in a statement. “These beautiful and very unusual objects might be telling us something very important about the evolution of galaxies.” [Photo of the UV rings around galaxies.]

Ads by GoogleBrain Test™Developed by Neuroscientists Improve Memory and Attention
http://www.lumosity.comDiamond Rings On SaleWide Selections of Diamond Rings Free FedEx, & 30-Days Money Back
http://www.WorldJewels.comDid Jesus Christ Exist?”The God Who Wasn’t There” Acclaimed documentary now on DVD
http://www.TheGodMovie.comAstronomers observed the ultraviolet rings using two orbiting space observatories: NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope. They studied 30 elliptical and lens-shaped “early” galaxies with strong UV emissions to determine why they – though ancient and having no visible signs of star formation – were still emitting such energetic light.

NASA announced the discovery this month. Details of the research appeared in the April 21 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

Mystery rings in deep space

While young and lively galaxies have bluish hues from their active stars, older galaxies emit reddish collective starlight, NASA officials said in a statement. This reddish trait of the stars in the ancient galaxies allowed scientists to peg the ages of most of the stars at around 10 billion years old.

When astronomers studied the same galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope, scientists discovered the source of the energetic look.

Three-quarters of the galaxies were surrounded by tremendous shining rings of ultraviolet light. A few halos were so large they could fit several galaxies the size of the Milky Way, and had ripples in their glow that stretched across 250,000 light-years.

How do they exist?

Researchers have yet to explain how some of these galaxies received the infusion of fresh, cold gas needed to produce this light. One explanation, though unlikely, suggests that collisions between the older galaxies and smaller ones lent the gas, new stars or ring-structure directly.

“To create a density shock wave that forms rings like those we’ve seen, a small galaxy has to hit a larger galaxy pretty much straight in the center,” said the study’s lead author, Samir Salim, an astronomer at Indiana University in Bloomington.”You have to have a dead-on collision, and that’s very uncommon.”

Another idea is that the intergalactic medium, the thin material between galaxies, contributed gas and generated the rings with the help of bar-like structures at the center of some galaxies.

Ultimately, the striking observation proves that the cycle of galaxy birth and death has more to it than previously thought.

“In a galaxy’s lifetime, it must make the transition from an active, star-forming galaxy to a quiescent galaxy that does not form stars,” Salim said. “But it is possible this process goes the other way, too, and that old galaxies can be rejuvenated.”

Like recurring seasons, it may be that barren galaxies can be awakened to breed stars again in another ultraviolet soaked “summer,” NASA officials said.


Why Won’t They Accept the Correct Answers?

Nebula’s Mysterious Halo Stumps Astronomers

A NEW image of a little-known nebula taken from the Hubble Space Telescope has astronomers wondering what’s lighting it up.

NASA has released an image of IRAS 05437+2502, or “Ira’s Ghost”, after it was snapped by Hubble as a “bonus target” – part of a list of things for Hubble to do when it’s got spare time.

Ira’s Ghost was first discovered in 1983 and sits within our own galaxy in the constellation Taurus. It’s known as a “reflection nebula” – a cloud of gas lit up by a light source – as opposed to an “emission nebula” which is lit up from within.

What makes this nebula unusual, apart from the fact it’s both stunning and spooky, is there’s so far no evidence of a light source.

Nebula’s Mysterious Halo Stumps Astronomers

Particularly one of the magnitude that has lit up the tip of one of its highest clouds with a blazing, boomerang-shaped halo.

The best explanation scientists have come up with so far is that Ira’s Ghost was once visited by a high-velocity star spat out by its cluster and passing through at 200,000km/h.

However, given it’s a “bonus target”, they’re not going to spend a lot of time worrying about it.

For now, it’s just another spectacular, mysterious flashpoint in the universe for us to wonder about.

IT IS NOT A MYSTERY!!!!!!!!!!

http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2010/arch10/100323trifid.htm
It’s called a “reflection nebula,” in which “dusty gas scatters the light from nearby, Trifid-born stars.” This explanation was reasonable, or at least familiar, when reflection was the only mechanism known for producing polarized light that had a spectrum similar to nearby stars. Later, the invention of the synchrotron contributed another possibility: blue polarized emissions of field-aligned electric currents twisting along magnetic fields.

The dark filaments that divide the nebula into thirds, hence giving it its name, Trifid, are called “gases and dust.” They will “collapse and form new stars” due to “gravity’s inexorable attraction.” This twinkle of explanation is entirely pretense. It’s contradicted not only by observations but also by traditional theory itself: Clouds of gas can collapse only if they have no angular momentum and no magnetism. However, for “some unknown reason,” all such clouds do have angular momentum and magnetism, usually a lot. As one astronomer has commented, “Astronomy has a spin problem.”

This is not a problem when the electrical properties of plasma are recognized: Birkeland currents generate spin, and the z-pinch effect is efficient at coalescing matter into filaments, disks, and dense spherules. One plasma physicist has called Birkeland currents the “vacuum cleaners of space.”


Another JUPITER Impact

FIREBALL ON JUPITER: On August 20th at 18:22 UT, amateur astronomer Masayuki Tachikawa of Kumamoto city, Japan, video-recorded an apparent impact on Jupiter. Click on the image to view a movie of the fireball:





This is the third time in only 13 months that amateur astronomers have detected signs of impact on Jupiter. The earlier events occured on July 19, 2009, and June 3, 2010. Jupiter is getting hit more often than conventional wisdom would suggest, leading many researchers to call for a global network of telescopes to monitor Jupiter 24/7 and measure the impact rate.


“Like the event of June 3rd, this fireball did not produce any visible debris,” notes John Rogers, director of the British Astronomical Association’s Jupiter section. “Here are some hi-resolution images taken 1-2 rotations before and 1-2 rotations after the event. As the observers commented, there was no visible mark (not in RGB, nor UV, nor methane), post-impact. Dark brown spots on the North Equatorial Belt were already there before the fireball.”


ET/Human Relation

I will give a few brief statements for understanding.
Negativity did not exist in ET experience until humans were involved. Think hard about that.

Thought processes between ET and human are extremely different. They do not understand deception/lies/falsities. ETs experienced that when certain treaties were broken and dissolved. They do not live reality in accordance to the fantasy element like humans do. They live according to true knowledge of universal truths. Humans live according to lies/deception that accrued throughout human history.

An example of this, OP, is if you were to have an ET experience, and you behaving as if they were an element of the Illumanati, when in fact, they are their own beings. DECEPTION is not involved in their own condition. Humans bring the DECEPTION into the mix to confuse the ET issue.

They are as advanced in spiritual aspects of being, as they are in technology. Many, if not all, of their technologies are based on consciousness. These techs WILL NOT WORK PROPERLY if consciousness is acting on deceptions/lies and fantasies. TPTB cannot figure that out…and only recently is that beginning to become known. This put TPTB in a bad situation, because unless they change their thought patterns, they cannot control or back engineer and use the tech to its fullest extent. There is a process in place to turn the pyramid upside down.

The military complex is clueless and has NO control over ANY of the ET condition. That is why you still see helicopters and jets scrambling and ‘chasing’ UFOs.

When ETs discovered the thought patterns and deception of our leaders, it set out to make contact through the ‘normal’ populace. This makes the contact and disclosure process much longer, and much more delicate. The ETs hadn’t realized exactly how far we have traveled away from ‘Home’.

Last thing I will say, is that Disclosure is NOT going to occur through politicians and diplomats. It is still undecided if there will actually be a full disclosure (it depends on what happens to the human condition during the next year and a half), but if disclosure is to occur, it will be the ETs choice and decision…no one elses.


IBEX – Looks Back at Earth and Catches a Head-On Crash Between Solar Wind and Earth’s Magnetic Field

Head-On Crash Spotted Between Solar Wind and Earth’s Magnetic Field
By SPACE.com Staff


posted: 17 August 2010
02:00 pm ET

A spacecraft designed to scan the edge of the solar system has turned its gaze back toward Earth, taking an unprecedented look at the solar wind’s head-on collision with the planet’s magnetic field.


NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer, known as IBEX, has recorded the first-ever look of the solar wind – the million-miles-per-hour stream of charged particles from the sun – crashing headlong into Earth’s magnetosphere, space agency officials said in a statement. The solar wind could strip away the planet’s atmosphere if the magnetosphere, a magnetic bubble surrounding the planet, didn’t help deflect it.


The spacecraft’s observations show the solar wind piling up in front of the magnetopause – the boundary between Earth’s magnetosphere and space, about 35,000 miles (56,327 km) toward the sun. The interaction is invisible to the human eye, but not to IBEX’s sensors.


Ads by GoogleFree Space WallpapersGet Cool Space Desktop Wallpapers w Planets, Moons & Stars-Try Them Now
wallpapers.smileycentral.comPerseid Meteor ShowerWatch The Perseid Meteor Shower Online! Its Free With Video Toolbar
Videos.alot.comKa You SystemsAudio/Video satellite projects Featuring Microphase Converters
http://www.kayousystems.comThe observations are expected to yield new insights into how the magnetosphere “force field” works, as well as how thin the uppermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere, called the exosphere, actually is, researchers said.


“Where the interaction is strongest, there are only about eight hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter,” study leader Stephen A. Fuselier of Lockheed Martin Space Systems said in a statement. The research is detailed in the July 8 issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters.


Such observations are a departure for IBEX, which is typically used to look outward. The spacecraft launched in October 2008 to map out the boundary between the solar system and interstellar space. It does so from an orbit that takes eight days to circle the Earth.


Last year, researchers announced that the probe had detected a mysterious ribbon on the edge of the solar system that scientists now think is a reflection of the solar wind.


IBEX also has been responsible for other firsts.


For example, it has directly collected hydrogen and oxygen from the interstellar medium.. And IBEX made the first observations of very fast hydrogen atoms coming from the moon, following decades of speculation about their existence. Many hydrogen atoms become embedded in the moon’s surface, so such measurements shed light on the “recycling processes” undergone by particles throughout the solar system.


IBEX uses the most sensitive neutral atom detectors ever flown in space and is building upon measurements made by the two Voyager spacecraft. Voyager 1 and 2, launched in 1977, have reached the interstellar boundary region, but their view is much narrower and more constrained.


“It will take a while before the community comes to a consensus about what the IBEX data really mean,” said IBEX principal investigator David McComas, assistant vice president at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “Yet we’ve already learned much, much more about our place in the solar system.”


New Kind of Star Explosion Discovered

New Kind of Star Explosion Discovered
By Charles Q. Choi
SPACE.com Contributor
posted: 12 August 2010
02:16 pm ET


An unexpected and powerful new kind of star explosion has been discovered in the heavens — a so-called gamma-ray nova that radiates the most energetic form of light in the universe.
A nova is a massive thermonuclear explosion from a white dwarf star fueled by mass from a companion star. Unlike supernovasnovas do not result in the destruction of their stars. Researchers had expected and seen X-rays from the resulting waves of expanding gas in prior novas. But unlike with supernovas, they had not seen gamma-rays emitted by novas.
Now researchers have discovered a nova that shed gamma rays, which are even more powerful than X-rays, by using the Fermi Large Area Telescope in orbit around the Earth, the most sensitive gamma-ray space telescope ever flown. [Photo of the gamma-ray nova.]

Gamma-ray star explosion
“This is the first gamma-ray nova seen,” said researcher Teddy Cheung, an astrophysicist at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington.
The gamma rays in question emerged from the binary system known as V407 Cygni some 8,800 light-years away, which consists of a white dwarf and a pulsating red giant star. They came after a nova spotted by amateur Japanese astronomers in March, which at its peak was just below the level of naked-eye visibility, brighter than at any other point in the nearly 75 years scientists had watched the system.
The researchers suggest the gamma rays were generated when the blast waves from the nova collided with the very dense winds from the red giant.
“As the blast wave propagates outward, it acts like a snowplow, sweeping up material from the stellar wind, and a shock front forms,” explained researcher Adam Hill, an astrophysicist at the University of Joseph Fourier-Grenoble in France.
Protons and electrons get accelerated to very high energies at this shock front. In turn, they produce gamma rays.
An expected find
In many novas, the white dwarf’s companion is a normal main sequence star, and as such has a much less dense stellar wind compared to the red giant in V407 Cygni, for less material to generate gamma rays with. Very few binary systems are expected to combine the kind of white dwarf stars that burst with novas with red giant companions, and as such the researchers expect gamma-ray novae to be quite rare.
“It is always exciting to discover something new and unanticipated,” Hill said. “It is occasions such as this which is why I enjoy being a scientist.”
The researchers at the Fermi-LAT Collaboration detailed their findings in the August 13 issue of the journal Science.


%d bloggers like this: